Day three of the ‘Researcher Links’ workshop in Montevideo, Uruguay

Day 3 got underway with a selection of video clips from international experts in the field of implementation theories;

Professor Nick Sevdalis, Professor of Implementation Science at Kings College London to explain aspects of implementation science and why it is important:

Professor Brendan MacCormack, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, described the PARiHS framework:

PARiHS translates to “Promoting Action on Research Implication in Health Services“. It is a framework that considers the evidence an intervention is based on, the context on where it is to be applied and how it can be facilitated in practice (i.e. how to make it easier for the practitioners who will apply intervention). These can be formed into a ‘cube’ to determine how we can get forms of evidence into practice.

Professor Margaret Maxwell, University of Stirling, described the RE-AIM framework alongside Realist Evaluation:

RE-AIM represents Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance.  The R and E consider individual effects of implication, A and I are concerned with the effects on the organisation and the M applies to either individual or organisation.

These videos were interspersed with talks from Mercedes Colombar and Kirsty Loudon. Mercedes described the range of implementation theories available. For more information see this Nilsen article.

Kirsty described the PRECIS-2 (, developed as part of Kirsty’s PhD thesis and is being used by several parties including the National Institutes of Health in the USA. In the UK the NIHR are considering use of the tool to apply to their pragmatic trials.

PRECIS-2 is an acronym for Pragmatic, Exploratory, Continuum, Indicator, Summaries and can be used as a tool to assist the applicability of trials.

A later discussion highlighted that this framework can be used to highlight research that is likely to be implemented. More information can be found in this BMJ article.

There followed a discussion relating to how participants had used frameworks previously in their research and practice. PRIME theory was mentioned, this theory, developed by Professor Robert West at UCL, is one of the most popular theories that can be applied to addiction (

One element is concerned with identity – for example, if a smoker identifies him/herself as a smoker, this will make it difficult to quit smoking; however if the smoker starts to identify him/herself as a non-smokers (e.g. through association with non-smokers, identifying as another role in life) then this will greatly aid any quit attempt.

The session ended by those present splitting into two groups, each with tobacco and alcohol researchers.

These groups discussed areas for future collaborations and these discussions were continued on Day 4…



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